"From the very beginning till the very end, I stood against bloodshed," Yanukovych said, speaking from the southern Russian city of Rostov-on-Don, where he lives. "I am not capable of giving such orders."
Yanukovych was testifying as a witness in the trial of five former riot police officers accused of carrying out the shootings, which killed 82 protesters.
Weeks after Yanukovych fled Ukraine in late February 2014, Russian troops took control of Ukraine's Crimea Peninsula and began backing separatists in eastern Ukraine, sparking a conflict that has claimed more than 9,600 lives.
Yanukovych is already being investigated on suspicion of mass murder by Ukrainian officials.
Yanukovych told the court that the shootings on Independence Square were part of a "planned operation" to topple his government.
"The Maidan violence was a pseudo-operation to take power," Yanukovych was quoted as saying by Russia’s state-run TASS news agency.
Lutsenko has said the Kremlin has allowed Yanukovych to be cross-examined merely as a public-relations stunt, pointing to Russian insistence that the testimony coincide with the third anniversary of the protests.
Moscow claims the uprising was orchestrated by the West and questions the legitimacy of Yanukovych's successor, Petro Poroshenko.